fix bond/react command
fix ID group-ID bond/react common_keyword values ... react react-ID react-group-ID Nevery Rmin Rmax template-ID(pre-reacted) template-ID(post-reacted) map_file individual_keyword values ... react react-ID react-group-ID Nevery Rmin Rmax template-ID(pre-reacted) template-ID(post-reacted) map_file individual_keyword values ... react react-ID react-group-ID Nevery Rmin Rmax template-ID(pre-reacted) template-ID(post-reacted) map_file individual_keyword values ... ...
ID, group-ID are documented in fix command. Group-ID is ignored.
bond/react = style name of this fix command
the common keyword/values may be appended directly after ‘bond/react’
this applies to all reaction specifications (below)
common_keyword = stabilization
stabilization values = no or yes group-ID xmax no = no reaction site stabilization yes = perform reaction site stabilization group-ID = user-assigned prefix for the dynamic group of atoms not currently involved in a reaction xmax = xmax value that is used by an internally-created nve/limit integrator
react = mandatory argument indicating new reaction specification
react-ID = user-assigned name for the reaction
react-group-ID = only atoms in this group are considered for the reaction
Nevery = attempt reaction every this many steps
Rmin = bonding pair atoms must be separated by more than Rmin to initiate reaction (distance units)
Rmax = bonding pair atoms must be separated by less than Rmax to initiate reaction (distance units)
template-ID(pre-reacted) = ID of a molecule template containing pre-reaction topology
template-ID(post-reacted) = ID of a molecule template containing post-reaction topology
map_file = name of file specifying corresponding atom-IDs in the pre- and post-reacted templates
zero or more individual keyword/value pairs may be appended to each react argument
individual_keyword = prob or max_rxn or stabilize_steps or update_edges
prob values = fraction seed fraction = initiate reaction with this probability if otherwise eligible seed = random number seed (positive integer) max_rxn value = N N = maximum number of reactions allowed to occur stabilize_steps value = timesteps timesteps = number of timesteps to apply the internally-created nve/limit fix to reacting atoms update_edges value = none or charges or custom none = do not update topology near the edges of reaction templates charges = update atomic charges of all atoms in reaction templates custom = force the update of user-specified atomic charges
For unabridged example scripts and files, see examples/USER/misc/bond_react.
molecule mol1 pre_reacted_topology.txt molecule mol2 post_reacted_topology.txt fix 5 all bond/react react myrxn1 all 1 0 3.25 mol1 mol2 map_file.txt molecule mol1 pre_reacted_rxn1.txt molecule mol2 post_reacted_rxn1.txt molecule mol3 pre_reacted_rxn2.txt molecule mol4 post_reacted_rxn2.txt fix 5 all bond/react stabilization yes nvt_grp .03 & react myrxn1 all 1 0 3.25 mol1 mol2 map_file_rxn1.txt prob 0.50 12345 & react myrxn2 all 1 0 2.75 mol3 mol4 map_file_rxn2.txt prob 0.25 12345 fix 6 nvt_grp_REACT nvt temp 300 300 100 # set thermostat after bond/react
Initiate complex covalent bonding (topology) changes. These topology changes will be referred to as ‘reactions’ throughout this documentation. Topology changes are defined in pre- and post-reaction molecule templates and can include creation and deletion of bonds, angles, dihedrals, impropers, bond types, angle types, dihedral types, atom types, or atomic charges. In addition, reaction by-products or other molecules can be identified and deleted.
Fix bond/react does not use quantum mechanical (eg. fix qmmm) or pairwise bond-order potential (eg. Tersoff or AIREBO) methods to determine bonding changes a priori. Rather, it uses a distance-based probabilistic criteria to effect predetermined topology changes in simulations using standard force fields.
This fix was created to facilitate the dynamic creation of polymeric, amorphous or highly cross-linked systems. A suggested workflow for using this fix is: 1) identify a reaction to be simulated 2) build a molecule template of the reaction site before the reaction has occurred 3) build a molecule template of the reaction site after the reaction has occurred 4) create a map that relates the template-atom-IDs of each atom between pre- and post-reaction molecule templates 5) fill a simulation box with molecules and run a simulation with fix bond/react.
Only one ‘fix bond/react’ command can be used at a time. Multiple reactions can be simultaneously applied by specifying multiple react arguments to a single ‘fix bond/react’ command. This syntax is necessary because the ‘common keywords’ are applied to all reactions.
The stabilization keyword enables reaction site stabilization. Reaction site stabilization is performed by including reacting atoms in an internally-created fix nve/limit time integrator for a set number of timesteps given by the stabilize_steps keyword. While reacting atoms are being time integrated by the internal nve/limit, they are prevented from being involved in any new reactions. The xmax value keyword should typically be set to the maximum distance that non-reacting atoms move during the simulation.
Fix bond/react creates and maintains two important dynamic groups of atoms when using the stabilization keyword. The first group contains all atoms currently involved in a reaction; this group is automatically thermostatted by an internally-created nve/limit integrator. The second group contains all atoms currently not involved in a reaction. This group should be used by a thermostat in order to time integrate the system. The name of this group of non-reacting atoms is created by appending ‘_REACT’ to the group-ID argument of the stabilization keyword, as shown in the second example above.
When using reaction stabilization, you should generally not have a separate thermostat which acts on the ‘all’ group.
The group-ID set using the stabilization keyword can be an existing static group or a previously-unused group-ID. It cannot be specified as ‘all’. If the group-ID is previously unused, the fix bond/react command creates a dynamic group that is initialized to include all atoms. If the group-ID is that of an existing static group, the group is used as the parent group of new, internally-created dynamic group. In both cases, this new dynamic group is named by appending ‘_REACT’ to the group-ID, e.g. nvt_grp_REACT. By specifying an existing group, you may thermostat constant-topology parts of your system separately. The dynamic group contains only atoms not involved in a reaction at a given timestep, and therefore should be used by a subsequent system-wide time integrator such as nvt, npt, or nve, as shown in the second example above (full examples can be found at examples/USER/misc/bond_react). The time integration command should be placed after the fix bond/react command due to the internal dynamic grouping performed by fix bond/react.
If the group-ID is an existing static group, react-group-IDs should also be specified as this static group, or a subset.
The following comments pertain to each react argument (in other words, can be customized for each reaction, or reaction step):
A check for possible new reaction sites is performed every Nevery timesteps.
Three physical conditions must be met for a reaction to occur. First, a bonding atom pair must be identified within the reaction distance cutoffs. Second, the topology surrounding the bonding atom pair must match the topology of the pre-reaction template. Finally, any reaction constraints listed in the map file (see below) must be satisfied. If all of these conditions are met, the reaction site is eligible to be modified to match the post-reaction template.
A bonding atom pair will be identified if several conditions are met. First, a pair of atoms I,J within the specified react-group-ID of type itype and jtype must be separated by a distance between Rmin and Rmax. It is possible that multiple bonding atom pairs are identified: if the bonding atoms in the pre-reacted template are 1-2 neighbors, i.e. directly bonded, the farthest bonding atom partner is set as its bonding partner; otherwise, the closest potential partner is chosen. Then, if both an atom I and atom J have each other as their bonding partners, these two atoms are identified as the bonding atom pair of the reaction site. Once this unique bonding atom pair is identified for each reaction, there could two or more reactions that involve a given atom on the same timestep. If this is the case, only one such reaction is permitted to occur. This reaction is chosen randomly from all potential reactions. This capability allows e.g. for different reaction pathways to proceed from identical reaction sites with user-specified probabilities.
The pre-reacted molecule template is specified by a molecule command. This molecule template file contains a sample reaction site and its surrounding topology. As described below, the bonding atom pairs of the pre-reacted template are specified by atom ID in the map file. The pre-reacted molecule template should contain as few atoms as possible while still completely describing the topology of all atoms affected by the reaction. For example, if the force field contains dihedrals, the pre-reacted template should contain any atom within three bonds of reacting atoms.
Some atoms in the pre-reacted template that are not reacting may have missing topology with respect to the simulation. For example, the pre-reacted template may contain an atom that, in the simulation, is currently connected to the rest of a long polymer chain. These are referred to as edge atoms, and are also specified in the map file. All pre-reaction template atoms should be linked to a bonding atom, via at least one path that does not involve edge atoms. When the pre-reaction template contains edge atoms, not all atoms, bonds, charges, etc. specified in the reaction templates will be updated. Specifically, topology that involves only atoms that are ‘too near’ to template edges will not be updated. The definition of ‘too near the edge’ depends on which interactions are defined in the simulation. If the simulation has defined dihedrals, atoms within two bonds of edge atoms are considered ‘too near the edge.’ If the simulation defines angles, but not dihedrals, atoms within one bond of edge atoms are considered ‘too near the edge.’ If just bonds are defined, only edge atoms are considered ‘too near the edge.’
Small molecules, i.e. ones that have all their atoms contained within the reaction templates, never have edge atoms.
Note that some care must be taken when a building a molecule template for a given simulation. All atom types in the pre-reacted template must be the same as those of a potential reaction site in the simulation. A detailed discussion of matching molecule template atom types with the simulation is provided on the molecule command page.
The post-reacted molecule template contains a sample of the reaction site and its surrounding topology after the reaction has occurred. It must contain the same number of atoms as the pre-reacted template. A one-to-one correspondence between the atom IDs in the pre- and post-reacted templates is specified in the map file as described below. Note that during a reaction, an atom, bond, etc. type may change to one that was previously not present in the simulation. These new types must also be defined during the setup of a given simulation. A discussion of correctly handling this is also provided on the molecule command page.
When a reaction occurs, it is possible that the resulting topology/atom (e.g. special bonds, dihedrals, etc.) exceeds that of the existing system and reaction templates. As when inserting molecules, enough space for this increased topology/atom must be reserved by using the relevant “extra” keywords to the read_data or create_box commands.
The map file is a text document with the following format:
A map file has a header and a body. The header of map file the contains one mandatory keyword and five optional keywords. The mandatory keyword is ‘equivalences’:
N equivalences = # of atoms N in the reaction molecule templates
The optional keywords are ‘edgeIDs’, ‘deleteIDs’, ‘customIDs’ and ‘constraints’:
N edgeIDs = # of edge atoms N in the pre-reacted molecule template N deleteIDs = # of atoms N that are specified for deletion N chiralIDs = # of specified chiral centers N N customIDs = # of atoms N that are specified for a custom update N constraints = # of specified reaction constraints N
The body of the map file contains two mandatory sections and five optional sections. The first mandatory section begins with the keyword ‘BondingIDs’ and lists the atom IDs of the bonding atom pair in the pre-reacted molecule template. The second mandatory section begins with the keyword ‘Equivalences’ and lists a one-to-one correspondence between atom IDs of the pre- and post-reacted templates. The first column is an atom ID of the pre-reacted molecule template, and the second column is the corresponding atom ID of the post-reacted molecule template. The first optional section begins with the keyword ‘EdgeIDs’ and lists the atom IDs of edge atoms in the pre-reacted molecule template. The second optional section begins with the keyword ‘DeleteIDs’ and lists the atom IDs of pre-reaction template atoms to delete. The third optional section begins with the keyword ‘ChiralIDs’ lists the atom IDs of chiral atoms whose handedness should be enforced. The fourth optional section begins with the keyword ‘Custom Edges’ and allows for forcing the update of a specific atom’s atomic charge. The first column is the ID of an atom near the edge of the pre-reacted molecule template, and the value of the second column is either ‘none’ or ‘charges.’ Further details are provided in the discussion of the ‘update_edges’ keyword. The fifth optional section begins with the keyword ‘Constraints’ and lists additional criteria that must be satisfied in order for the reaction to occur. Currently, there are three types of constraints available, as discussed below.
A sample map file is given below:
# this is a map file 7 equivalences 2 edgeIDs BondingIDs 3 5 EdgeIDs 1 7 Equivalences 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7
The handedness of atoms that are chiral centers can be enforced by listing their IDs in the ChiralIDs section. A chiral atom must be bonded to four atoms with mutually different atom types. This feature uses the coordinates and types of the involved atoms in the pre-reaction template to determine handedness. Three atoms bonded to the chiral center are arbitrarily chosen, to define an oriented plane, and the relative position of the fourth bonded atom determines the chiral center’s handedness.
Any number of additional constraints may be specified in the Constraints section of the map file. The constraint of type ‘distance’ has syntax as follows:
distance ID1 ID2 rmin rmax
where ‘distance’ is the required keyword, ID1 and ID2 are pre-reaction atom IDs, and these two atoms must be separated by a distance between rmin and rmax for the reaction to occur.
The constraint of type ‘angle’ has the following syntax:
angle ID1 ID2 ID3 amin amax
where ‘angle’ is the required keyword, ID1, ID2 and ID3 are pre-reaction atom IDs, and these three atoms must form an angle between amin and amax for the reaction to occur (where ID2 is the central atom). Angles must be specified in degrees. This constraint can be used to enforce a certain orientation between reacting molecules.
The constraint of type ‘arrhenius’ imposes an additional reaction probability according to the temperature-dependent Arrhenius equation:
The Arrhenius constraint has the following syntax:
arrhenius A n E_a seed
where ‘arrhenius’ is the required keyword, A is the pre-exponential factor, n is the exponent of the temperature dependence, \(E_a\) is the activation energy (units of energy), and seed is a random number seed. The temperature is defined as the instantaneous temperature averaged over all atoms in the reaction site, and is calculated in the same manner as for example compute temp/chunk. Currently, there are no options for additional temperature averaging or velocity-biased temperature calculations. A uniform random number between 0 and 1 is generated using seed; if this number is less than the result of the Arrhenius equation above, the reaction is permitted to occur.
Once a reaction site has been successfully identified, data structures within LAMMPS that store bond topology are updated to reflect the post-reacted molecule template. All force fields with fixed bonds, angles, dihedrals or impropers are supported.
A few capabilities to note: 1) You may specify as many react arguments as desired. For example, you could break down a complicated reaction mechanism into several reaction steps, each defined by its own react argument. 2) While typically a bond is formed or removed between the bonding atom pairs specified in the pre-reacted molecule template, this is not required. 3) By reversing the order of the pre- and post- reacted molecule templates in another react argument, you can allow for the possibility of one or more reverse reactions.
The optional keywords deal with the probability of a given reaction occurring as well as the stable equilibration of each reaction site as it occurs:
The prob keyword can affect whether or not an eligible reaction actually occurs. The fraction setting must be a value between 0.0 and 1.0. A uniform random number between 0.0 and 1.0 is generated and the eligible reaction only occurs if the random number is less than the fraction. Up to N reactions are permitted to occur, as optionally specified by the max_rxn keyword.
The stabilize_steps keyword allows for the specification of how many timesteps a reaction site is stabilized before being returned to the overall system thermostat. In order to produce the most physical behavior, this ‘reaction site equilibration time’ should be tuned to be as small as possible while retaining stability for a given system or reaction step. After a limited number of case studies, this number has been set to a default of 60 timesteps. Ideally, it should be individually tuned for each fix reaction step. Note that in some situations, decreasing rather than increasing this parameter will result in an increase in stability.
The update_edges keyword can increase the number of atoms whose atomic charges are updated, when the pre-reaction template contains edge atoms. When the value is set to ‘charges,’ all atoms’ atomic charges are updated to those specified by the post-reaction template, including atoms near the edge of reaction templates. When the value is set to ‘custom,’ an additional section must be included in the map file that specifies whether or not to update charges, on a per-atom basis. The format of this section is detailed above. Listing a pre-reaction atom ID with a value of ‘charges’ will force the update of the atom’s charge, even if it is near a template edge. Atoms not near a template edge are unaffected by this setting.
A few other considerations:
Many reactions result in one or more atoms that are considered unwanted by-products. Therefore, bond/react provides the option to delete a user-specified set of atoms. These pre-reaction atoms are identified in the map file. A deleted atom must still be included in the post-reaction molecule template, in which it cannot be bonded to an atom that is not deleted. In addition to deleting unwanted reaction by-products, this feature can be used to remove specific topologies, such as small rings, that may be otherwise indistinguishable.
Optionally, you can enforce additional behaviors on reacting atoms. For example, it may be beneficial to force reacting atoms to remain at a certain temperature. For this, you can use the internally-created dynamic group named “bond_react_MASTER_group”, which consists of all atoms currently involved in a reaction. For example, adding the following command would add an additional thermostat to the group of all currently-reacting atoms:
fix 1 bond_react_MASTER_group temp/rescale 1 300 300 10 1
This command must be added after the fix bond/react command, and will apply to all reactions.
Computationally, each timestep this fix operates, it loops over neighbor lists (for bond-forming reactions) and computes distances between pairs of atoms in the list. It also communicates between neighboring processors to coordinate which bonds are created and/or removed. All of these operations increase the cost of a timestep. Thus you should be cautious about invoking this fix too frequently.
You can dump out snapshots of the current bond topology via the dump local command.
Restart, fix_modify, output, run start/stop, minimize info:
Cumulative reaction counts for each reaction are written to binary restart files. These values are associated with the reaction name (react-ID). Additionally, internally-created per-atom properties are stored to allow for smooth restarts. None of the fix_modify options are relevant to this fix.
This fix computes one statistic for each react argument that it stores in a global vector, of length ‘number of react arguments’, that can be accessed by various output commands. The vector values calculated by this fix are “intensive”.
These is 1 quantity for each react argument:
cumulative # of reactions occurred
When fix bond/react is ‘unfixed,’ all internally-created groups are deleted. Therefore, fix bond/react can only be unfixed after unfixing all other fixes that use any group created by fix bond/react.
This fix is part of the USER-MISC package. It is only enabled if LAMMPS was built with that package. See the Build package doc page for more info.
The option defaults are stabilization = no, prob = 1.0, stabilize_steps = 60, update_edges = none
(Gissinger) Gissinger, Jensen and Wise, Polymer, 128, 211 (2017).