8.6.4. Polarizable models
In polarizable force fields the charge distributions in molecules and materials respond to their electrostatic environments. Polarizable systems can be simulated in LAMMPS using three methods:
the fluctuating charge method, implemented in the QEQ package,
the adiabatic core-shell method, implemented in the CORESHELL package,
the thermalized Drude dipole method, implemented in the USER-DRUDE package.
The fluctuating charge method calculates instantaneous charges on interacting atoms based on the electronegativity equalization principle. It is implemented in the fix qeq which is available in several variants. It is a relatively efficient technique since no additional particles are introduced. This method allows for charge transfer between molecules or atom groups. However, because the charges are located at the interaction sites, off-plane components of polarization cannot be represented in planar molecules or atom groups.
The two other methods share the same basic idea: polarizable atoms are split into one core atom and one satellite particle (called shell or Drude particle) attached to it by a harmonic spring. Both atoms bear a charge and they represent collectively an induced electric dipole. These techniques are computationally more expensive than the QEq method because of additional particles and bonds. These two charge-on-spring methods differ in certain features, with the core-shell model being normally used for ionic/crystalline materials, whereas the so-called Drude model is normally used for molecular systems and fluid states.
The core-shell model is applicable to crystalline materials where the high symmetry around each site leads to stable trajectories of the core-shell pairs. However, bonded atoms in molecules can be so close that a core would interact too strongly or even capture the Drude particle of a neighbor. The Drude dipole model is relatively more complex in order to remedy this and other issues. Specifically, the Drude model includes specific thermostatting of the core-Drude pairs and short-range damping of the induced dipoles.
The three polarization methods can be implemented through a self-consistent calculation of charges or induced dipoles at each timestep. In the fluctuating charge scheme this is done by the matrix inversion method in fix qeq/point, but for core-shell or Drude-dipoles the relaxed-dipoles technique would require an slow iterative procedure. These self-consistent solutions yield accurate trajectories since the additional degrees of freedom representing polarization are massless. An alternative is to attribute a mass to the additional degrees of freedom and perform time integration using an extended Lagrangian technique. For the fluctuating charge scheme this is done by fix qeq/dynamic, and for the charge-on-spring models by the methods outlined in the next two sections. The assignment of masses to the additional degrees of freedom can lead to unphysical trajectories if care is not exerted in choosing the parameters of the polarizable models and the simulation conditions.
In the core-shell model the vibration of the shells is kept faster than the ionic vibrations to mimic the fast response of the polarizable electrons. But in molecular systems thermalizing the core-Drude pairs at temperatures comparable to the rest of the simulation leads to several problems (kinetic energy transfer, too short a timestep, etc.) In order to avoid these problems the relative motion of the Drude particles with respect to their cores is kept “cold” so the vibration of the core-Drude pairs is very slow, approaching the self-consistent regime. In both models the temperature is regulated using the velocities of the center of mass of core+shell (or Drude) pairs, but in the Drude model the actual relative core-Drude particle motion is thermostatted separately as well.