Energy of low angle grain boundaries based on continuum dislocation structure
LC Zhang and YJ Gu and Y Xiang, ACTA MATERIALIA, 126, 11-24 (2017).
In this paper, we present a continuum model to compute the energy of low angle grain boundaries for any given degrees of freedom (arbitrary rotation axis, rotation angle and boundary plane orientation) based on a continuum dislocation structure. In our continuum model, we minimize the grain boundary energy associated with the dislocation structure subject to the constraint of Frank's formula for dislocations with all possible Burgers vectors. This constrained minimization problem is solved by the penalty method by which it is turned into an unconstrained minimization problem. The grain boundary dislocation structure is approximated by a network of straight dislocations that predicts the energy and dislocation densities of the grain boundaries. The grain boundary energy based on the calculated dislocation structure is able to incorporate its anisotropic nature. We use our continuum model to systematically study the energy of < 111 > low angle grain boundaries in fcc Al with any boundary plane orientation and all six possible Burgers vectors. Comparisons with atomistic simulation results show that our continuum model is able to give excellent predictions of the energy and dislocation densities of low angle grain boundaries. We also study the energy of low angle grain boundaries in fcc Al with varying rotation axis while the remaining degrees of freedom are fixed. With modifications, our model can also apply to dislocation structures and energy of heterogeneous interfaces. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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