A Coarse-Grained Model of Stratum Corneum Lipids: Free Fatty Acids and Ceramide NS
TC Moore and CR Iacovella and R Hartkamp and AL Bunge and C McCabe, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, 120, 9944-9958 (2016).
Ceramide (CER)-based biological membranes are used both experimentally and in simulations,as simplified model systems of the skin barrier. Molecular dynamics studies have generally focused on simulating preassembled structures using atomistically detailed models of CERs, which limit the system sizes and time scales that can practically be probed, rendering them ineffective for studying particular phenomena, including self-assembly into bilayer and lamellar superstructures. Here, we report on the development of a coarse grained (CG) model for CER NS, the most abundant CER in human stratum corneum. Multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion is used to derive the intermolecular pair potentials, resulting in a force field that is applicable over a range of state points and suitable for studying ceramide self-assembly. The chosen CG mapping, which includes explicit interaction sites for hydroxyl groups, captures the directional nature of hydrogen bonding and allows for accurate piedictions of several key structural properties of CER NS bilayers. Simulated wetting experiments allow the hydrophobicity of CG beads to be accurately tuned to match atomistic wetting behavior, which affects the whole system, since inaccurate hydrophobic character is found to unphysically alter the lipid packing in hydrated lamellar states. We find that CER NS can self-assemble into multilamellar structures, enabling the study of lipid systems more representative of the multilamellar lipid structures present in the skin barrier. The coarse-grained force field derived herein represents an important step in using molecular dynamics to study the human skin barrier, which gives a resolution not available through experiment alone.
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