Strong, Twist-Stable Carbon Nanotube Yarns and Muscles by Tension Annealing at Extreme Temperatures
JT Di and SL Fang and FA Moura and DS Galvao and J Bykova and A Aliev and MJ de Andrade and X Lepro and N Li and C Haines and R Ovalle-Robles and D Qian and RH Baughman, ADVANCED MATERIALS, 28, 6598-+ (2016).
A high-speed incandescent tension annealing process (ITAP) is used to increase the modulus and strength of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns by up to 12-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively, provide remarkable resistance to oxidation and powerful protonating acids, and freeze yarn untwist. This twist stability enables torsional artificial-muscle motors having improved performance and minimizes problematic untwist during weaving nanotube yarns.
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