Arginine, a Key Residue for the Enhancing Ability of an Antifreeze Protein of the Beetle Dendroides canadensis

S Wang and N Amornwittawat and V Juwita and Y Kao and JG Duman and TA Pascal and WA Goddard and X Wen, BIOCHEMISTRY, 48, 9696-9703 (2009).

DOI: 10.1021/bi901283p

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can produce a difference between the nonequilibrium freezing point and the melting point, termed thermal hysteresis (TH). The TH activity of an antifreeze protein (AFP) depends on the specific AFP and its concentration as well as the presence of cosolutes including low molecular mass solutes and/or proteins. We recently identified series of carboxylates and polyols as efficient enhancers for an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis. In this study, we chemically modified DAFP-1 using the arginine-specific reagent 1,2-cyclohexanedione. We demonstrated that 1,2-cyclohexanedione specifically modifies one arginine residue and the modified DAFP-1 loses its enhancing ability completely or partially in the presence of previously identified enhancers. The stronger the enhancement ability of the enhancer on the native DAFP-1, the stronger the enhancement effect of the enhancer on the modified DAFP-1. The weaker enhancers (e.g., glycerol) completely lose their enhancement effect on the modified DAFP-l due to their inability to compete with 1,2-cyclohexanedione for the arginine residue. Regeneration of the arginine residue using hydroxylamine fully restored the enhancing ability of DAFP-1. These studies indicated that an arginine residue is critical for the enhancing ability of DAFP-I and the guanidinium group of the arginine residue is important for its interaction with the. enhancers, where the general mechanism of arginine-ligand interaction is borne. This work may initiate a complete mechanistic study of the enhancement effect in AFPs.

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