AA-stacked bilayer square ice between graphene layers

MSF Mario and M Neek-Amal and FM Peeters, PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 92, 245428 (2015).

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.245428

Water confined between two graphene layers with a separation of a few A forms a layered two-dimensional ice structure. Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations with the adoptable ReaxFF interatomic potential we found that flat monolayer ice with a rhombic-square structure nucleates between the graphene layers which is nonpolar and nonferroelectric. We provide different energetic considerations and H-bonding results that explain the interlayer and intralayer properties of two-dimensional ice. The controversial AA stacking found experimentally Algara-Siller et al., Nature (London) 519, 443 (2015) is consistent with our minimum-energy crystal structure of bilayer ice. Furthermore, we predict that an odd number of layers of ice has the same lattice structure as monolayer ice, while an even number of ice layers exhibits the square ice AA stacking of bilayer ice.

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