Void growth in metals: Atomistic calculations
S Traiviratana and EM Bringa and DJ Benson and MA Meyers, ACTA MATERIALIA, 56, 3874-3886 (2008).
Molecular dynamics simulations in monocrystalline and bicrystalline copper were carried out with LAMMPS (Large-Scale Atomic/ Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) to reveal void growth mechanisms. The specimens were subjected to tensile uniaxial strains. the results confirm that the emission of (shear) loops is the primary mechanism of void growth. It is observed that many of these shear loops develop along two slip planes (and not one, as previously thought). in a heretofore unidentified mechanisms of cooperative growth. The emission of dislocations front voids is the first stage, and their reaction and interaction is the second stage. These loops, forming initially on different 111 planes, join at the intersection, if the Burgers vector of the dislocations is parallel to the intersection of two 111 planes: a < 110 > direction. Thus. the two dislocations cancel at the intersection and a biplanar shear loop is formed. The expansion of the loops and their cross slip leads to the severely work-hardened region surrounding a growing void. Calculations were carried Out on voids with different sizes. and I size dependence of the stress threshold to emit dislocations was obtained by MD. in disagreement with the Gurson model which is scale independent. This disagreement is most marked for the nanometer sized voids. The scale dependence of the stress required to grow voids is interpreted in terms of the decreasing availability of optimally, oriented shear planes and increased stress required to nucleate shear loops Lis the void size is reduced. The growth of voids simulated by MD is compared with the Cocks-Ashby constitutive model and significant agreement is found. The density of geometrically necessary dislocations as a function of void size is calculated based oil the emission of shear loops and their outward propagation. Calculations are also carried out for a void at the interface between two Grains to simulate polycrystalline response. The dislocation emission pattern is qualitatively, similar to microscope observations. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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