Shock-induced plasticity and the Hugoniot elastic limit in copper nano films and rods
D Seif and G Po and R Crum and V Gupta and NM Ghoniem, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 115, 054301 (2014).
Shock deformation of copper nano-films and nano-rods is examined with Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The influence of the small system size on the onset of plasticity, its origin resulting from the nucleation of dislocation loops, and its reversible nature are determined. While simulations of large systems with periodic boundary conditions indicate that tremendous axial stresses are needed to induce plastic deformation in perfect copper crystals, the present results suggest that the stress levels needed to initiate irreversible plasticity in nano-rods are more than one order of magnitude smaller than what has been reported for bulk single crystals. MD studies of nano-films show that shock waves are purely elastic up until the Hugoniot elastic limit of P-HEL approximate to 30-40 GPa, at which point Shockley partial dislocations are internally nucleated at the shock front. However, our recent experiments on shocked nano-rods show that plasticity is evident at much lower axial stress levels, on the order of 1-2 GPa. The present MD simulations of shocked nano-rods show that Shockley partial dislocations prefer to nucleate at lower stresses from the rod surface, at P-HEL approximate to 1-2 GPa, consistent with our concurrent experimental observations, leading to surface step formation and mechanical damage. Nucleated dislocations are found to be Shockley partials in the 100 and 111 oriented nano-rods, with the additional presence of perfect dislocations in the latter. MD simulations of rarefaction shock waves in nano-films indicate that they can be spalled via a mechanism of nano-void nucleation, growth and coalescence at the spall plane. The origin of these nano-voids is shown to be at the intersection of stacking faults on conjugate slip 111 planes. Spallation by void nucleation and coalescence is found not to be achievable in nano-rods. Rarefaction shocks with high stresses were found to either severely deform or melt the nano-rod before it can be spalled. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
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