Defecting controllability of bombarding graphene with different energetic atoms via reactive force field model

XY Liu and FC Wang and HS Park and HA Wu, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 114, 054313 (2013).

DOI: 10.1063/1.4817790

We study the bombardment of a suspended monolayer graphene sheet via different energetic atoms via classical molecular dynamics based on the reactive force field (ReaxFF). We find that the probability, quality, and controllability of defects are mainly determined by the impact site, the properties of the incident atom, and the incident energy. Through comparison with density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that defects and vacancies in graphene form only in regions of sufficiently high electron density. Furthermore, the quality of defects is influenced by the bond order of the incident atom-carbon bonds, where a higher bond order leads to lower probability of pristine defects (vacancies) but a higher probability of direct-substitution. Finally, the incident energy plays an important role on the evolution and final pattern of defects in graphene. Based on the probability, quality, and controllability analysis performed, we depict a full-range energy spectrum for atomic bombardment, where we demonstrate that desirable defects such as single vacancies and direct-substitution can be created with the appropriate incident energy. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

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