Development and Validation of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Fe/Al/Ni Alloys: Molecular Dynamics Study of Elastic Constants, Diffusion, and Segregation
YK Shin and H Kwak and CY Zou and AV Vasenkov and ACT van Duin, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 116, 12163-12174 (2012).
We have developed a ReaxFF force field for Fe/Al/Ni binary alloys based on quantum mechanical (QM) calculations. In addition to the various bulk phases of the binary alloys, the (100), (110) and (111) surface energies and adatom binding energies were included in the training set for the force field parametrization of the Fe/Al/Ni binary alloys. To validate these optimized force fields, we studied (i) elastic constants of the binary alloys at finite temperatures, (ii) diffusivity of alloy components in Al/Ni alloy, and (iii) segregation on the binary alloy surfaces. First, we calculated linear elastic constants of FeAl, FeNi3, and Ni3Al in the temperature range 300 to 1100 K. The temperature dependences of the elastic constants of these three alloys, showing a decrease in C-11, C-12, and C-44 as temperature increases, were in good agreement with the experimental results. We also performed ReaxFF molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for Al or Ni diffusion in the system modeled as Al/Ni mixed layers with the linear composition gradients. At 1000 K, Al diffusivity at the pure Al end was 2 orders of magnitude larger than that in the Al trace layers, probably explaining the nature of different diffusion behavior between molten metals and alloys. However, the diffusivity of Ni at the pure Ni end was only slightly larger than that in the Ni trace layers at the system temperature much lower than the melting temperature of Ni. Third, we investigated the surface segregation in L1(2)-Fe3Al, Fe3Ni, and Ni3Al clusters at high temperature (2500 K). From the analysis of composition distribution of the alloy components from the bulk to the surface layer, it was found that the degree of segregation depended on the chemical composition of the alloy. Al surface segregation occurred most strongly in Fe3Al, whereas it occurred most weakly in Ni3Al. These results may support the segregation mechanism that surface segregation results from the interplay between the energetic stability of the ordered bulk phase and the surface reconstruction. In addition, the surface segregation induced the depletion layers of segregating metal species (Al in Fe3Al and Ni3Al, and Ni in Fe3Ni) next to the segregation layers. These simulation results qualitatively agreed with early experimental observations of segregation in Fe/Al/Ni binary alloys.
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