( )Ionic Conduction through Reaction Products at the Electrolyte- Electrode Interface in All-Solid-State Li+ Batteries
CH Wang and K Aoyagi and M Aykol and T Mueller, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 12, 55510-55519 (2020).
All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have attracted significant research interest for providing high power and energy densities with enhanced operational safety. Despite the discoveries of solid electrolyte materials with superionic conductivities, it remains a challenge to maintain high rate capability in all-solid lithium-ion batteries in long-term operation. The observed rate degradation has been attributed to reactivity and resistance at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. We examine interfaces formed between eight electrolytes including garnet, LiPON, and Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) and seven electrode materials including an NCM cathode and a metallic Li anode and identify the most rapid lithium-ion diffusion pathways through metastable arrangements of product phases that may precipitate out at each interface. Our analysis accounts for possible density functional theory (DFT) error, metastability, and finite-temperature effects by statistically sampling thousands of possible phase diagrams for each interface. The lithium-ion conductivities in the product phases at the interface are evaluated using machine-learned interatomic potentials trained on the fly. In nearly all electrode-electrolyte interfaces we evaluate, we predict that lithium-ion conduction in the product phases making up the interphase region becomes the rate-limiting step for battery performance.
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