Migration energy barriers and diffusion anisotropy of point defects on tungsten surfaces
JN Hao and S JIn and GH Lu and HX Xu, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, 184, 109893 (2020).
Tungsten is one of the most promising candidates for plasma-facing materials in future fusion devices, owing to its high performance under extreme irradiation conditions. However, irradiation-induced surface morphology varies significantly, depending on the irradiation type, fluence, and flux. Therefore, it is critical to examine the dynamics of point defects on tungsten (W) surfaces to understand how irradiation affects surface morphology. In this study, we employ the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method to search for potential migration paths of point defects on W (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces. The first-principles calculations are then used to accurately determine the migration energy barriers. The obtained paths and barriers are incorporated into a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model to determine trajectories and diffusivities, which are described by diffusion tensors to demonstrate their anisotropic features. Multiple diffusion mechanisms have been identified on different surfaces, with various anisotropy factors. Particularly, point defects on the W (1 1 0) surface have the highest diffusivities, with anisotropy factors independent of temperatures. In comparison, the anisotropy of the W (1 0 0) surface decreases as temperature increases, while the W (1 1 1) surface is isotropic for point defects. This study provides insights into defect transport properties on different surfaces, which are essential for understanding the early stages of irradiation-induced microstructural evolutions and surface morphology of tungsten.
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