Crystallization of self-propelled particles on a spherical substrate
Y Fang and C Wang and HY Jiang, APPLIED MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS- ENGLISH EDITION, 40, 1387-1398 (2019).
In this paper, we investigate the self-propelled particles confined on a spherical substrate and explore the structural and dynamic properties of self-propelled particles by controlling the packing fraction and activity. We find that these self-propelled particles freeze into the crystal with the increase in the packing fraction. We observe the pattern evolution of inevitable topological defects due to the geometric constraints of the spherical substrate. During the process of freezing, there is a transition from twelve isolated grain boundaries to the uniform distribution of defects with the increase in the self-propelled velocity. Finally, we establish a phase diagram of the freezing process. These results may deepen our understanding of active particles in complex and crowded environments.
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