Atomistic simulation of diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials undergoing ultrasonic welding
A Samanta and SP Xiao and NG Shen and JJ Li and HT Ding, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, 103, 879-890 (2019).
Ultrasonic welding (UW) process offers the ability to create highly efficient solid-state joints for lightweight metal alloys with low power consumption. During the process, a distinct diffusion layer is observed at the joint interface that undergoes severe plastic deformation at elevated temperature. A hierarchical multiscale method is proposed in this study to predict the diffusion behavior of the UW process of dissimilar materials. The method combines molecular dynamics and classical diffusion theory to calculate the thickness of the diffusion layer at the welded interface. A molecular dynamics model is developed for the first time that considers the effect of transverse ultrasonic vibration to simulate the evolution of the diffusion layer. The effect of ultrasonic vibration at the atomic level is assumed to provide thermal energy at the joint interface and the mechanical movement of atoms. The influence of sinusoidal velocity change during ultrasonic vibration is incorporated by numerically time integrating the diffusivity at different ultrasonic velocity. The simulation result shows that the solid-state diffusivity depends on temperature, pressure, and transverse ultrasonic velocity. Higher temperature, pressure, and ultrasonic velocity result in higher diffusivity leading to larger diffusion layer thickness. This article provides a comprehensive review of the diffusion bonding behavior and its dependence on process variables. It also presents a numerical approach combining molecular dynamics and hierarchical multiscale calculation to predict the diffusion layer thickness for the UW process of dissimilar materials.
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