Structure, energy, and structural transformations of graphene grain boundaries from atomistic simulations
TH Liu and G Gajewski and CW Pao and CC Chang, CARBON, 49, 2306-2317 (2011).
Domain/grain boundaries are often introduced into graphene during chemical vapor deposition growth processes. Here, we performed a series of hybrid molecular dynamics simulations to study the structures, energies, and structural transformations of symmetric tilt grain boundaries of graphene. The grain boundary comprises an array of edge dislocations, with the dislocation density increasing upon increasing the grain boundary misorientation angle. The dislocation in the zigzag- oriented grain boundary contains an edge-sharing pentagon/heptagon defect, whereas the dislocation in the armchair-oriented grain boundary contains two paired pentagon/heptagon defects. In some grain boundaries, out-of-plane buckling exists due to the presence of dislocations. In the transition region (the region between the zigzag- and armchair-oriented grain boundaries), the grain boundary structures feature complex mixtures of both zigzag and armchair grain boundaries. We also discuss the grain boundary transformations and migrations that occur upon adding or removing carbon atoms at the grain boundaries for all of our investigated types of grain boundaries. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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