Characterization of the liquid Li-solid Mo (110) interface from classical molecular dynamics for plasma-facing applications
JR Vella and M Chen and S Furstenberg and FH Stillinger and EA Carter and PG Debenedetti and AZ Panagiotopoulos, NUCLEAR FUSION, 57, 116036 (2017).
An understanding of the wetting properties and a characterization of the interface between liquid lithium (Li) and solid molybdenum (Mo) are relevant to assessing the efficacy of Li as a plasma-facing component in fusion reactors. In this work, a new second-nearest neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) force field is parameterized to describe the interactions between Li and Mo. The new force field reproduces several benchmark properties obtained from first-principles quantum mechanics simulations, including binding curves for Li at three different adsorption sites and the corresponding forces on Li atoms adsorbed on the Mo (110) surface. This force field is then used to study the wetting of liquid Li on the (110) surface of Mo and to examine the Li-Mo interface using molecular dynamics simulations. From droplet simulations, we find that liquid Li tends to completely wet the perfect Mo (110) surface, in contradiction with previous experimental measurements that found non-zero contact angles for liquid Li on a Mo substrate. However, these experiments were not carried out under ultra- high vacuum conditions or with a perfect (110) Mo surface, suggesting that the presence of impurities, such as oxygen, and surface structure play a crucial role in this wetting process. From thin-film simulations, it is observed that the first layer of Li on the Mo (110) surface has many solid-like properties such as a low mobility and a larger degree of ordering when compared to layers further away from the surface, even at temperatures well above the bulk melting temperature of Li. These findings are consistent with temperature-programmed desorption experiments.
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