Atomistic simulations of graphite etching at realistic time scales
DUB Aussems and KM Bal and TW Morgan and MCMV De Sandenac and EC Neyts, CHEMICAL SCIENCE, 8, 7160-7168 (2017).
Hydrogen-graphite interactions are relevant to a wide variety of applications, ranging from astrophysics to fusion devices and nano- electronics. In order to shed light on these interactions, atomistic simulation using Molecular Dynamics (MD) has been shown to be an invaluable tool. It suffers, however, from severe time-scale limitations. In this work we apply the recently developed Collective Variable-Driven Hyperdynamics (CVHD) method to hydrogen etching of graphite for varying inter-impact times up to a realistic value of 1 ms, which corresponds to a flux of similar to 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). The results show that the erosion yield, hydrogen surface coverage and species distribution are significantly affected by the time between impacts. This can be explained by the higher probability of C-C bond breaking due to the prolonged exposure to thermal stress and the subsequent transition from ion-to thermal-induced etching. This latter regime of thermal-induced etching - chemical erosion - is here accessed for the first time using atomistic simulations. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that accounting for long time-scales significantly affects ion bombardment simulations and should not be neglected in a wide range of conditions, in contrast to what is typically assumed.
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