Interfacial free energy and stiffness of aluminum during rapid solidification
NT Brown and E Martinez and JM Qu, ACTA MATERIALIA, 129, 83-90 (2017).
Using molecular dynamics simulations and the capillary fluctuation method, we have calculated the anisotropic crystal-melt interfacial free energy and stiffness of aluminum in a rapid solidification system where a temperature gradient is applied to enforce thermal non-equilibrium. To calculate these material properties, the standard capillary fluctuation method typically used for systems in equilibrium has been modified to incorporate a second-order Taylor expansion of the interfacial free energy term. The result is a robust method for calculating interfacial energy, stiffness and anisotropy as a function of temperature gradient using the fluctuations in the defined interface height. This work includes the calculation of interface characteristics for temperature gradients ranging from 11 to 34 K/nm. The captured results are compared to a thermal equilibrium case using the same model and simulation technique with a zero gradient definition. We define the temperature gradient as the change in temperature over height perpendicular to the crystal-melt interface. The gradients are applied in MD simulations using defined thermostat regions on a stable solid-liquid interface initially in thermal equilibrium. The results of this work show that the interfacial stiffness and free energy for aluminum are dependent on the magnitude of the temperature gradient, however the anisotropic parameters remain independent of the non equilibrium conditions applied in this analysis. The relationships of the interfacial free energy/stiffness are determined to be linearly related to the thermal gradient, and can be interpolated to find material characteristics at additional temperature gradients. (C) 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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