**Implementation and performance of FDPS: a framework for developing
parallel particle simulation codes**

M Iwasawa and A Tanikawa and N Hosono and K Nitadori and T Muranushi and J Makino, PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN, 68, 54 (2016).

DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psw053

We present the basic idea, implementation, measured performance, and performance model of FDPS (Framework for Developing Particle Simulators). FDPS is an application-development framework which helps researchers to develop simulation programs using particle methods for large-scale distributed-memory parallel supercomputers. A particle-based simulation program for distributed-memory parallel computers needs to perform domain decomposition, exchange of particles which are not in the domain of each computing node, and gathering of the particle information in other nodes which are necessary for interaction calculation. Also, even if distributed-memory parallel computers are not used, in order to reduce the amount of computation, algorithms such as the Barnes-Hut tree algorithm or the Fast Multipole Method should be used in the case of long-range interactions. For short-range interactions, some methods to limit the calculation to neighbor particles are required. FDPS provides all of these functions which are necessary for efficient parallel execution of particle-based simulations as "templates," which are independent of the actual data structure of particles and the functional form of the particle-particle interaction. By using FDPS, researchers can write their programs with the amount of work necessary to write a simple, sequential and unoptimized program of O(N-2) calculation cost, and yet the program, once compiled with FDPS, will run efficiently on large-scale parallel supercomputers. A simple gravitational N-body program can be written in around 120 lines. We report the actual performance of these programs and the performance model. The weak scaling performance is very good, and almost linear speed-up was obtained for up to the full system of the K computer. The minimum calculation time per timestep is in the range of 30 ms (N = 10(7)) to 300 ms (N = 10(9)). These are currently limited by the time for the calculation of the domain decomposition and communication necessary for the interaction calculation. We discuss how we can overcome these bottlenecks.

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