Time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Stress relaxation tests and simulations
XS Yang and YJ Wang and GY Wang and HR Zhai and LH Dai and TY Zhang, ACTA MATERIALIA, 108, 252-263 (2016).
In the present work, stress relaxation tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on coarse-grained (cg), nanograined (ng), and nanotwinned (nt) copper at temperatures of 22 degrees C (RT), 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 75 degrees C. The comprehensive investigations provide sufficient information for the building-up of a formula to describe the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation and clarify the relationship among the strain rate sensitivity parameter, stress exponent, and activation volume. The typically experimental curves of logarithmic plastic strain rate versus stress exhibited a three staged relaxation process from a linear high stress relaxation region to a subsequent nonlinear stress relaxation region and finally to a linear low stress relaxation region, which only showed-up at the test temperatures higher than 22 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 30 degrees C, respectively, in the tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens. The values of stress exponent, stress independent activation energy, and activation volume were determined from the experimental data in the two linear regions. The determined activation parameters, HRTEM images, and MD simulations consistently suggest that dislocation- mediated plastic deformation is predominant in all tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens in the initial linear high stress relaxation region at the five relaxation temperatures, whereas in the linear low stress relaxation region, the grain boundary (GB) diffusion-associated deformation is dominant in the ng- and cg-Cu specimens, while twin boundary (TB) migration, i.e., twinning and detwinning with parallel partial dislocations, governs the time, stress, and temperature- dependent deformation in the nt-Cu specimens. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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