Near-surface viscosity effects on capillary rise of water in nanotubes
TQ Vo and M Barisik and B Kim, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, 92, 053009 (2015).
In this paper, we present an approach for predicting nanoscale capillary imbibitions using the Lucas-Washburn (LW) theory. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the effects of surface forces on the viscosity of liquid water. This provides an update to the modified LW equation that considered only a nanoscale slip length. An initial water nanodroplet study was performed to properly elucidate the wetting behavior of copper and gold surfaces. Intermolecular interaction strengths between water and corresponding solid surfaces were determined by matching the contact angle values obtained by experimental measurements. The migration of liquid water into copper and gold capillaries was measured by MD simulations and was found to differ from the modified LW equation. We found that the liquid layering in the vicinity of the solid surface induces a higher density and viscosity, leading to a slower MD uptake of fluid into the capillaries than was theoretically predicted. The near-surface viscosity for the nanoscale- confined water was defined and calculated for the thin film of water that was sheared between the two solid surfaces, as the ratio of water shear stress to the applied shear rate. Considering the effects of both the interface viscosity and slip length of the fluid, we successfully predicted the MD-measured fluid rise in the nanotubes.
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