Grain-size dependent mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals
EN Hahn and MA Meyers, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, 646, 101-134 (2015).
Grain size has a profound effect on the mechanical response of metals. Molecular dynamics continues to expand its range from a handful of atoms to grain sizes up to 50 nm, albeit commonly at strain rates generally upwards of 10(6) s(-1). In this review we examine the most important theories of grain size dependent mechanical behavior pertaining to the nanocrystalline regime. For the sake of clarity, grain sizes d are commonly divided into three regimes: d > 1 mu m, 1 mu m < d < 100 nm; and d < 100 nm. These different regimes are dominated by different mechanisms of plastic flow initiation. We focus here in the region d < 100 nm, aptly named the nanocrystalline region. An interesting and representative phenomenon at this reduced spatial scale is the inverse Hall-Petch effect observed experimentally and in MD simulations in FCC, BCC, and HCP metals. Significantly, we compare the results of molecular dynamics simulations with analytical models and mechanisms based on the contributions of Conrad and Narayan and Argon and Yip, who attribute the inverse Hall-Petch relationship to the increased contribution of grain- boundary shear as the grain size is reduced. The occurrence of twinning, more prevalent at the high strain rates enabled by shock compression, is evaluated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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