Displacement cascades and defects annealing in tungsten, Part I: Defect database from molecular dynamics simulations
W Setyawan and G Nandipati and KJ Roche and HL Heinisch and BD Wirth and RJ Kurtz, JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS, 462, 329-337 (2015).
Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to generate a comprehensive database of surviving defects due to displacement cascades in bulk tungsten. Twenty-one data points of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies ranging from 100 eV (sub-threshold energy) to 100 key (similar to 780 x E-d, where E-d = 128 eV is the average displacement threshold energy) have been completed at 300 K, 1025 K and 2050 K. Within this range of PKA energies, two regimes of power-law energy-dependence of the defect production are observed. A distinct power-law exponent characterizes the number of Frenkel pairs produced within each regime. The two regimes intersect at a transition energy which occurs at approximately 250 x E-d. The transition energy also marks the onset of the formation of large self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters (size 14 or more). The observed defect clustering behavior is asymmetric, with SIA clustering increasing with temperature, while the vacancy clustering decreases. This asymmetry increases with temperature such that at 2050 K (similar to 0.5T(m)) practically no large vacancy clusters are formed, meanwhile large SIA clusters appear in all simulations. The implication of such asymmetry on the long-term defect survival and damage accumulation is discussed. In addition, 1 0 01 1 0 SIA loops are observed to form directly in the highest energy cascades, while vacancy 1 0 0 loops are observed to form at the lowest temperature and highest PKA energies, although the appearance of both the vacancy and SIA loops with Burgers vector of 1 0 0 type is relatively rare. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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