Confinement effects of graphene oxide nanosheets on liquid-solid phase transition of water

M Zokaie and M Foroutan, RSC ADVANCES, 5, 97446-97457 (2015).

DOI: 10.1039/c5ra21480g

In this work, the liquid-solid phase transition temperature of water confined between two graphene oxide (GO) sheets is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results demonstrate that, due to the presence of functional groups of the GO sheets, at temperatures below liquid-solid phase transition temperature, the water molecules near the confining sheets are not structured like ice and remained in the liquid form. The results also reveal the confinement effects on the melting and freezing rate of water molecules. The confining conditions delay the freezing process of the water molecules compared to the bulk water molecules. These results are confirmed by the calculated total energy, the density profile of water molecules confined between two GO sheets, the number of hydrogen bonding, radial distribution function, and mean square displacement. The liquid-solid phase transition temperature of water in the presence of GO sheets was calculated as 236 K, which was 34 K less than the temperature of the bulk water.

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