Development of a ReaxFF reactive force field for intrinsic point defects in titanium dioxide
S Huygh and A Bogaerts and ACT van Duin and EC Neyts, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, 95, 579-591 (2014).
A reactive ReaxFF force field is developed for studying the influence of intrinsic point defects on the chemistry with TiO2 condensed phases. The force field parameters are optimized to ab initio data for the equations of state, relative phase stabilities for titanium and titanium dioxide, potential energy differences for (TiO2)n-clusters (n = 1-16). Also data for intrinsic point defects in anatase were added. These data contain formation energies for interstitial titanium and oxygen vacancies, diffusion barriers of the oxygen vacancies and molecular oxygen adsorption on a reduced anatase (1 0 1) surface. Employing the resulting force field, we study the influence of concentration of oxygen vacancies and expansion or compression of an anatase surface on the diffusion of the oxygen vacancies. Also the barrier for oxygen diffusion in the subsurface region is evaluated using this force field. This diffusion barrier of 27.7 kcal/mol indicates that the lateral redistribution of oxygen vacancies on the surface and in the subsurface will be dominated by their diffusion in the subsurface, since both this barrier as well as the barriers for diffusion from the surface to the subsurface and vice versa (17.07 kcal/mol and 21.91 kcal/mol, respectively, as calculated with DFT), are significantly lower than for diffusion on the surface (61.12 kcal/mol as calculated with DFT). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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