Micro-scale modeling of excited granular ship cargos: A numerical approach
CC Spandonidis and KJ Spyrou, OCEAN ENGINEERING, 74, 22-36 (2013).
A micro-scale modeling approach is presented for simulating the dynamic behavior of granular materials having physical properties conforming to bulky ship cargos. This paper's outlook is on the potential of methods of granular matter investigation for the prediction of cargo shift and related phenomena, a field that, despite its great importance, remains underdeveloped. Particles are treated as discrete interacting objects. The so called "molecular dynamics" method is applied. Different materials are investigated numerically in term of how easily they can exhibit a "fluid-like" behavior. Monosized particles of diameters between 1 and 3 mm and of various densities, are subjected either to tilting or to linear vibration. The tests are organized in two campaigns. In the first, container dimensions and number of particles are fixed; subsequently the filling ratio varies. In the second series, geometric similarity is kept. The container's width is adjusted to a certain multiple of the particle diameter. Center of mass and free surface profile are monitored. The focus is on forcing thresholds where behavioral changes are realized, in connection to the different materials and configurations tested. Heap formation on the surface and stick-slip behavior, both linked to the initiation of cargo shift, are characteristic phenomena receiving attention. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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