Structure of nanoscale gas bubbles in metals
A Caro and D Schwen and E Martinez, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 103, 213115 (2013).
A usual way to estimate the amount of gas in a bubble inside a metal is to assume thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., the gas pressure P equals the capillarity force 2 gamma/R, with gamma the surface energy of the host material and R the bubble radius; under this condition there is no driving force for vacancies to be emitted or absorbed by the bubble. In contrast to the common assumption that pressure inside a gas or fluid bubble is constant, we show that at the nanoscale this picture is no longer valid. P and density can no longer be defined as global quantities determined by an equation of state (EOS), but they become functions of position because the bubble develops a core-shell structure. We focus on He in Fe and solve the problem using both continuum mechanics and empirical potentials to find a quantitative measure of this effect. We point to the need of redefining an EOS for nanoscale gas bubbles in metals, which can be obtained via an average pressure inside the bubble. The resulting EOS, which is now size dependent, gives pressures that differ by a factor of two or more from the original EOS for bubble diameters of 1 nm and below. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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