**Reduction of the allotropic transition temperature in nanocrystalline
zirconium: Predicted by modified equation of state (MEOS) method and
molecular dynamics simulation**

A Salati and E Mokhtari and M Panjepour and G Aryanpour, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS, 74, 584-589 (2013).

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2012.12.009

The temperature at which polymorphic phase transformation occurs in nanocrystalline (NC) materials is different from that of coarse-grained specimens. This anomaly has been related to the role of grain boundary component in these materials and can be predicted by a dilated crystal model. In this study, based on this model, a modified equation of state (MEOS) method (instead of equation of state, EOS, method) is used to calculate the total Gibbs free energy of each phase (beta-Zr or alpha- Zr) in NC Zr. Thereupon, the change in the total Gibbs free energy for beta-Zr to alpha-Zr phase transformation (Delta G(beta ->alpha)) via the grain size is calculated by this method. Similar to polymorphic transformation in other NC materials (Fe, Nb, Co, TiO2, Al2O3 and ZnS), it is found that the estimated transformation temperature in NC Zr (beta ->alpha) is reduced with decreasing grain size. Finally, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to confirm the theoretical results. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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