**Surface effects on the dual-mode vibration of < 1 1 0 > silver nanowires
with different cross-sections**

HF Zhan and YT Gu, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 45, 465304 (2012).

DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/45/46/465304

Dual-mode vibration of nanowires (NWs) has been reported experimentally
through actuation of the NW at its resonance frequency, which is
expected to open up a variety of new modalities for
nanoelectromechanical systems that could operate in the nonlinear
regime. In this work, we utilize large-scale molecular dynamics
simulations to investigate the dual-mode vibration of < 1 1 0 > Ag NWs
with triangular, rhombic and truncated rhombic cross-sections. By
incorporating the generalized Young-Laplace equation into the Euler-
Bernoulli beam theory, the influence of surface effects on the dual-mode
vibration is studied. Due to the different lattice spacings in the
principal axes of inertia of the *1 1 0* atomic layers, the NW is also
modelled as a discrete system to reveal the influence from such a
specific atomic arrangement. It is found that the < 1 1 0 > Ag NW will
be under a dual-mode vibration if the actuation direction deviates from
the two principal axes of inertia. The predictions of the two first mode
natural frequencies by the classical beam model appear underestimated
compared with the MD results, which are found to be enhanced by the
discrete model. Particularly, the predictions by the beam theory with
the contribution of surface effects are uniformly larger than the
classical beam model, which exhibit better agreement with MD results for
a larger cross-sectional size. However, for ultrathin NWs, current
consideration of surface effects still experiences certain inaccuracy.
In all, for all different cross-sections, the inclusion of surface
effects is found to reduce the difference between the two first mode
natural frequencies. This trend is observed to be consistent with MD
results. This study provides a first comprehensive investigation on the
dual-mode vibration of < 1 1 0 > oriented Ag NWs, which is supposed to
benefit the applications of NWs that act as a resonating beam.

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