A constitutive model with microstructure evolution for flow of rate- independent granular materials
J Sun and S Sundaresan, JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 682, 590-616 (2011).
A constitutive model is developed for the complex rheology of rate- independent granular materials. The closures for the pressure and the macroscopic friction coefficient are linked to microstructure through evolution equations for coordination number and fabric. The material constants in the model are functions of particle-level properties and are calibrated using data generated through simulations of steady and unsteady simple shear using the discrete element method (DEM). This model is verified against DEM simulations at complex loading conditions.
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