**Two-Phase Thermodynamic Model for Efficient and Accurate Absolute
Entropy of Water from Molecular Dynamics Simulations**

ST Lin and PK Maiti and WA Goddard, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, 114, 8191-8198 (2010).

DOI: 10.1021/jp103120q

Presented here is the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model for the calculation of energy and entropy of molecular fluids from the trajectory of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this method, the density of state (DoS) functions (including the normal modes of translation, rotation, and intramolecular vibration motions) are determined from the Fourier transform of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation functions. A fluidicity parameter (f), extracted from the thermodynamic state of the system derived from the same MD, is used to partition the translation and rotation modes into a diffusive, gas- like component (with 3Nf degrees of freedom) and a nondiffusive, solid- like component. The thermodynamic properties, including the absolute value of entropy, are then obtained by applying quantum statistics to the solid component and applying hard sphere/rigid rotor thermodynamics to the gas component. The 2PT method produces exact thermodynamic properties of the system in two limiting states: the nondiffusive solid state (where the fluidicity is zero) and the ideal gas state (where the fluidicity becomes unity). We examine the 2PT entropy for various water models (F3C, SPC, SPC/E, TIP3P, and TIP4P-Ew) at ambient conditions and find good agreement with literature results obtained based on other simulation techniques. We also validate the entropy of water in the liquid and vapor phases along the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve from the triple point to the critical point. We show that this method produces converged liquid phase entropy in tens of picoseconds, making it an efficient means for extracting thermodynamic properties from MD simulations.

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